A Lutheran Approach to Ministering to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Abuse: What does this mean?






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“It is to the little children we must preach, it is for them that the entire ministry exists.” – Martin Luther 82

Introduction

Theologians often struggle with ministering to the needs of both victims and perpetrators of child abuse. Pastoral ignorance of the dynamics inherent in these cases often results in applying the law to victims and the gospel to perpetrators. 83
This takes place when pastors fail to understand that
childhood trauma often results in significant medical
and mental health conditions including drug and alcohol
abuse, violent tendencies, anger, promiscuity or early
pregnancy. 84
Accordingly, pastors are tempted to apply the law without realizing they are only treating the smoke and not the fire itself. In contrast, most sex offenders are religious 85 and highly skilled at mouthing the words of repentance and in otherwise convincing clergy not to take strong actions against them. 86
As a result, many pastors pronounce the gospel to offenders fully intent on continuing in their sin.

When this happens, abused children suffer profound
spiritual damage 87 and often flee the church while their offenders are empowered to remain snug in the pews
emboldened to strike again. 88 In unwittingly harming the child’s faith, pastors are also harming the primary coping mechanism of many abused children. 89
Research consistently shows that child abuse victims “who maintained some connection to their personal faith (even if it was damaged as a result of abuse) experienced better mental health outcomes compared to adult survivors of abuse who did not.” 90

Although clergy need better training in responding to all aspects of child abuse,10 Lutheran theologians should also utilize their rich religious traditions in properly responding to these cases. In the lives and writings of Martin Luther and C.F.W. Walther, we find sound theological principles for godly responses to child abuse.

To this end, this article includes a discussion of child abuse in the lives of Luther and Walther, some insight as to how abuse may have influenced each man, and an analysis of how each of these pillars of our Lutheran faith viewed children and responded to instances of maltreatment and sexual exploitation.

Notes:

  1. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  2. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  3. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  4. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  5. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  6. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  7. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  8. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  9. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  10. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  11. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  12. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  13. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  14. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  15. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  16. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  17. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  18. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  19. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  20. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  21. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  22. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  23. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  24. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  25. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  26. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  27. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  28. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  29. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  30. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  31. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  32. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  33. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  34. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  35. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  36. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  37. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  38. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  39. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  40. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  41. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  42. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  43. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  44. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  45. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  46. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  47. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  48. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  49. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  50. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  51. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  52. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  53. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  54. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  55. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  56. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  57. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  58. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  59. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  60. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  61. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  62. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  63. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  64. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  65. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  66. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  67. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  68. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  69. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  70. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  71. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  72. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  73. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  74. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  75. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  76. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  77. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  78. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  79. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  80. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  81. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  82. Charles Daudert, Ed., Off the Record with Martin Luther: An Original Translation of the Table Talks 233 (2009).
  83. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  84. Vincent J. Felitti and Robert F. Anda, The Relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: implications for healthcare, in Lanius, et al, The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic 77-87 (Cambridge University Press 2010).
  85. According to one study, 93% of sex offenders describe themselves as religious. Gene Abel & Nora Harlow, The Stop Child Abuse Book (2001)
  86. Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257, 261-264 (2012)
  87. Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, “The Long Term Impact of Child Abuse on Religious Behvavior and Spirituality in Men,” 22(5) Child Abuse & Neglect 369, 376-377 (1998); Barbara R. McLaughlin, “Devastated Spirituality: The Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on the Survivor’s Relationship with God,” 1(2) Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (1994); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).
  88. See generally, Victor I. Vieth, “What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse,” 40(4) Journal of Psychology & Theology 257 (2012).
  89. Terry Lynn Gall, “Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse,” 30 Child Abuse & Neglect 829 (2006).
  90. Victor I. Vieth, Basyle Tchividjian, Donald F. Walker, & Katlin R. Knodel, “Child Abuse and the Church: A Call for Prevention, Treatment and Training,” 40 Journal of Psychology & Theology 323, 330 (2012); see also, Shondrah Tarrezz Nash & Latonya Hesterberg, “Biblical Framings of and Responses to Spousal Violence in the Narratives of Abused Christian Women,” 15(3) Violence Against Women 340 (2009); Donald F. Walker, et al, “Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents,” 41 Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 174 (2010).